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This project work is titled the use of microbes as mobility control agents during microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). Oil is an energy source that drives industrialization and continued economic growth.  In many industrialized nations such as the United States, domestic oil production is in decline and the likelihood of discovering large, new oil reserves is low.  This makes it essential that the remaining resources are to be used wisely.  Microorganisms will play a pivotal role in determining the quality and effective use of petroleum resources.  The problems encountered with petroleum exploitation should be viewed with microorganisms in mind. 
Microbes BioSciences has over twenty years experience in the microbial enhanced oil recovery business.  Its technology was developed and proved in the US and projects have been successfully completed in China, Argentina, Indonesia, Ecuador, Venezuela and the former Soviet Union.  Its technology is based on isolating and culturing natural hydrocarbon reducing microorganisms and introducing these microbes into petroleum reservoirs through production and injection wells. 
Microbes BioSciences' SARA BioMobile is a bacterial consortium of scientific strains of microbials for enhanced oil recovery.  All microbials are naturally-occurring, non-toxic, non-GMO and are all proven in the oil field.
The porous medium of reservoir rock is a natural habitat for microorganisms.  These scientific strains of bacteria colonize and migrate outward, actively working at the oil-water interface.  In many oil-producing reservoirs much of the water is attached to rock and does not move.  As oil production percolates through the microbe colony, heavy oils are reduced into thinner, less viscous components.
The microbial process produces numerous byproducts resulting in enhanced oil recovery and less viscous oil. And the aim of this work is to list and discuss those byproducts of microbes  that are used in mobility control agents.



Title Page
Approval Page
Table of Content
1.0      Introduction
1.1      Objective of the study
1.2      Significance of the study
1.3      Background of the study

2.0      Literature review
2.1      Review of evolution of microorganism
2.2      History of microorganisms' discovery
2.3      Classification and structure of microorganism
3.0      Methodology
3.1      Enhanced oil recovery
3.2      Microbes enhanced oil recovery
3.3      Advantages of microbial over other eor technologies
3.4      Products and activities of microorganisms potentially useful for eor and improved production
3.5     A three-pronged approach
3.6      Overcoming obstacles
3.7      MEOR Outcomes
3.8      MEOR advantages and disadvantages  

4.1      Importance in human health
4.1      Ways bacteria improve our lives
4.2      Diseases caused by microbes
4.3      Hygiene
6.0      Conclusion
6.1      Recommendation
6.2      Bibliography



1.0                                                        INTRODUCTION
In popular culture the term Microbes are often used to refer to micro-organisms.  Microorganisms is a microscopic organism, which may be a single cell or multicellular organism. The study of microorganisms is called microbiology, a subject that began with Antonie van Leeuwenhoek's discovery of microorganisms in 1675, using a microscope of his own design.
Microorganisms are very diverse and include all of the bacteria and archaea and almost all of the protozoa. They also include some members of the fungi, algae, and animals such as rotifers. Many macro animals and plants have juvenile stages which are also microorganisms. Some microbiologists also classify viruses as microorganisms, but others consider these as nonliving. Most microorganisms are microscopic, but there are some bacteria such as Thiomargarita namibiensis and some protozoa such as Stentor, which are macroscopic and visible to the naked eye.
Microorganisms live in every part of the biosphere including soil, hot springs, on the ocean floor, high in the atmosphere and deep inside rocks within the Earth's crust .Microorganisms are crucial to nutrient recycling in ecosystems as they act as decomposers. As some microorganisms can fix nitrogen, they are a vital part of the nitrogen cycle, and recent studies indicate that airborne microbes may play a role in precipitation and weather.
On 17 March 2013, researchers reported data that suggested microbial life forms thrive in the Mariana Trench. The deepest spot in the Earth's oceans. Other researchers reported related studies that microbes thrive inside rocks up to 1900 feet (580 metres) below the sea floor under 8500 feet (2590 metres) of ocean off the coast of the northwestern United States. According to one of the researchers,"You can find microbes everywhere — they're extremely adaptable to conditions, and survive wherever they are."
Microbes are also exploited in biotechnology, both in traditional food and beverage preparation, and in modern technologies based on genetic engineering.
A small proportion of micro-organisms are pathogenic and cause disease and even death in plants and animals. In popular culture the term Microbe is often used to refer to micro-organisms.

1.1                                              OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this work is to height and discusses how microbes are use in mobility control agents during microbial enhanced oil recovery.

1.2                                           SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Microbes are vital to humans and the environment, as they participate in the Earth's element cycles such as the carbon cycle and nitrogen cycle, as well as fulfilling other vital roles in virtually all ecosystems, such as recycling other organisms' dead remains and waste products through decomposition. Microbess also have an important place in most higher-order multicellular organisms as symbionts. Many blame the failure of Biosphere 2 on an improper balance of microorganisms.

Use in digestion

Some forms of bacteria that live in animals' stomachs help in their digestion. For example, cows have a variety of different microbes in their stomachs that aid them in their digestion of grass and hay.

The gastrointestinal tract contains an immensely complex ecology of microorganisms. A typical person harbors more than 500 distinct species of bacteria, representing dozens of different lifestyles and capabilities. The composition and distribution of this menagerie varies with age, state of health and diet.
The number and type of bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract vary dramatically by region. In healthy individuals the stomach and proximal small intestine contain few microorganisms, largely a result of the bacteriocidal activity of gastric acid; those that are present are aerobes and facultative anaerobes. One interesting testimony to the ability of gastric acid to suppress bacterial populations is seen in patients with achlorhydria, a genetic condition which prevents secretion of gastric acid. Such patients, which are otherwise healthy, may have as many as 10,000 to 100,000,000 microorganisms per ml of stomach contents.
In sharp contrast to the stomach and small intestine, the contents of the colon literally teem with bacteria, predominantly strict anaerobes (bacteria that survive only in environments virtually devoid of oxygen). Between these two extremes is a transitional zone, usually in the ileum, where moderate numbers of both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria are found.
The gastrointestinal tract is sterile at birth, but colonization typically begins within a few hours of birth, starting in the small intestine and progressing caudally over a period of several days. In most circumstances, a "mature" microbial flora is established by 3 to 4 weeks of age.
It is also clear that microbial populations exert a profound effect on structure and function of the digestive tract. For example:
The morphology of the intestine of germ-free animals differs considerably from normal animals - villi of the small intestine are remarkably regular, the rate of epithelial cell renew is reduced and, as one would expect, the number and size of Peyer's patches is reduced. The cecum of germ-free rats is roughly 10 times the size of that in a conventional rat. Bacteria in the intestinal lumen metabolize a variety of sterols and steroids. For example, bacteria convert the bile salt cholic acid to deoxycholic acid. Small intestinal bacteria also have an important role in sex steroid metabolism. Finally, bacterial populations in the large intestine digest carbohydrates, proteins and lipids that escape digestion and absorption in small intestine. This fermentation, particularly of cellulose, is of critical importance to herbivores like cattle and horses which make a living by consuming plants. However, it seems that even species like humans and rodents derive significant benefit from the nutrients liberated by intestinal microorganisms.

Use in food

Fermentation (food)
Microorganisms are used in brewing, wine making, baking, pickling and other food-making processes.
They are also used to control the fermentation process in the production of cultured dairy products such as yogurt and cheese. The cultures also provide flavour and aroma, and inhibit undesirable organisms.

Use in water treatment

Sewage treatment
The majority of all oxidative sewage treatment processes rely on a large range of microorganisms to oxidise organic constituents which are not amenable to sedimentation or flotation. Anaerobic microorganisms are also used to reduce sludge solids producing methane gas (amongst other gases) and a sterile mineralised residue. In potable water treatment, one method, the slow sand filter, employs a complex gelatinous layer composed of a wide range of microorganisms to remove both dissolved and particulate material from raw water.

Use in energy

Algae fuel, Cellulosic ethanol, and Ethanol fermentation
Microbes are used in fermentation to produce ethanol, and in biogas reactors to produce methane. Scientists are researching the use of algae to produce liquid fuels, and bacteria to convert various forms of agricultural and urban waste into usable fuels.

Use in production of chemicals, enzymes etc.

Many microbes are used for commercial and industrial production of chemicals, enzymes and other bioactive molecules. Examples of organic acid produced include:

  • Acetic acid: Produced by the bacterium Acetobacter aceti and other acetic acid bacteria (AAB)
  • Butyric acid (butanoic acid): Produced by the bacterium Clostridium butyricum
  • Lactic acid: Lactobacillus and others commonly called as lactic acid bacteria (LAB)
  • Citric acid: Produced by the fungus Aspergillus niger

Microbes are used for preparation of bioactive molecules and enzymes.

  • Streptokinase produced by the bacterium Streptococcus and modified by genetic engineering is used as a clot buster for removing clots from the blood vessels of patients who have undergone myocardial infarctions leading to heart attack.
  • Cyclosporin A is a bioactive molecule used as an immunosuppressive agent in organ transplantation
  • Statins produced by the yeast Monascus purpureus are commercialised as blood cholesterol lowering agents which act by competitively inhibiting the enzyme responsible for synthesis of cholesterol.

Use in science

Microbes are also essential tools in biotechnology, biochemistry, genetics, and molecular biology. The yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) are important model organisms in science, since they are simple eukaryotes that can be grown rapidly in large numbers and are easily manipulated. They are particularly valuable in genetics, genomics and proteomics. Microbes can be harnessed for uses such as creating steroids and treating skin diseases. Scientists are also considering using microbes for living fuel cells, and as a solution for pollution.

Use in warfare

Biological warfare
In the middle Ages, diseased corpses were thrown into castles during sieges using catapults or other siege engines. Individuals near the corpses were exposed to the deadly pathogen and were likely to spread that pathogen to others.
1.3                                           BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Oil productions have been experiencing decline in many parts of the world due to the oil field maturity, and example of such includes the major oil fields in the North Sea. Another major factor which causes downgrade is the increasing energy demands due to global population growth and the difficulty in discovering new oil fields as an alternative to the exploited oil fields. Therefore, there is an urge to find out alternative technologies to increase oil recovery from existing oil fields around the world. It is a fact that fossil fuels will still remain the key source of energy, regardless of the gross investments in other energy sources such as biofuels, solar energy, and wind energy. Current global energy production from fossil fuels represents about 80–90% with oil and gas typifying about 60%. Cossé stated that during the process of oil production, between 30 and 40% of oil can be contributed by primary oil recovery, while additional 15–25% can be recovered by secondary methods such as water injection leaving behind about 35–55% of oil as residual oil in the reservoirs. The focus of many enhanced oil recovery technologies is this residual oil, and it amounts to about 2–4 trillion barrels or about 67% of the total oil reserves. For many oil companies, residual oil recovery is at present unavoidable, and so there is a perpetual hunt for a cheap and efficient technology which will raise the global oil production as well as the productive life of many oil fields. The recovery of this residual oil is accomplished by enhanced oil recovery (EOR) or tertiary recovery methods which are used in oil industry to increase the production of crude oil. Most common tertiary recovery methods include chemical flooding, miscible CO2 injection, and thermally enhanced oil recovery method which uses heat as a main source for the additional oil recovery. Large quantities of residual oil in the depleted oil reservoirs could be regained by these EOR methods as the current primary and secondary extraction methods leave about two-thirds of the original oil in the reservoir. One of the potential EOR methods is microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR), which employs microorganisms to pull out the remaining oil from the reservoirs. Up to 50% of the residual oil can be extracted by this exceptionally low operating cost technology. The field trials of MEOR method project a chance to reverse the declining trend of oil production or at least to maintain a curve with a positive slope. This is achieved by the alteration of chemical and physical properties of reservoir rocks and crude oil by the microbial growth and metabolites produced. MEOR can overcome the main hindrances of efficient oil recovery such as low reservoir permeability, high viscosity of the crude oil, and high oil-water interfacial tensions, which in turn result in high capillary forces retaining the oil within the reservoir rock


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